Ocular pathology includes a very wide field. The eye itself is a very small and delicate organ, with many structures and layers each playing an essential role in normal visual functioning.
The slightest change in structure may cause a visual defect, such as congenital abnormalities/deformations, trauma, degenerations, strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) or eye diseases.
Common ocular pathology includes:
- Pterygium – triangular, pink, fleshy growth on the white part of the eye (usually nasal) commonly found in people who spend lots of time outdoors.
- Keratoconus – thinning of the cornea into a cone shape
- Cataract – opacification of the crystalline lens and it might best be described as looking through a dirty window.
- Glaucoma – damage to the optic nerve which will cause gradual visual loss, commonly caused by increased eye pressure (although not always).
- Age related macular degeneration – damage to the macula (essential for central vision)
- Diabetic/hypertensive retinopathy – a retinal condition that might be found in diabetic and hypertensive patients, due to damage of blood vessels.